Requirements of jute fiber cultivation:
- High temperature to 95®F with a minimum 80®F during the pried of growth.
- Well preventive soil or fairly fine texture
- Suitable seeds
- Rainfall over 40’’
- A sufficient supply of water for retting the plants and washing the striped fibers.
- Sufficient supply of skilled labor to handle the crop at the proper time.
- Facilities for placing the fibers in the market.
Cultivation of jute: Jute seeds are small. Therefore, a view fine preparation of the land is necessary. The country plough made of wood is used generally for ploughing the land, which does not invent the soil very well. So the land is ploughed and cross-ploughed at least repeated about 6-8 times.
Climate and soils: Jute requires a warm and humid climate temperature between 24®C to 37®C. Constant rain or water-logging is harmful. The new gray alluvial soil of good depth, receiving salt from annual floods, is best for jute. Flow ever jute is grown widely in sandy loams and clay loams.
Sowing methods: There are generally two methods of sowing. Such as –
- Broad cast sowing
- Line sowing.
Broadcast sowing: In broadcast sowing, the seeds are thrown by hand and by the method known as cross sowing. This method permits uniform distribution of the seeds over the ground.
Line sowing: Line sowing is done where machine ploughing and machine sowing are used. This method permit easy weeding and thinning of plants as well as gives better yield both in quality and quantity.
Time of sowing: Corchorus Capsularies variety can be sown any time after January depending upon the position of lands and weather condition. But Corchorus Olitorius variety should not be sown before March because plants have a tendency of branching premature flowering and reveling to wild bush forms without proper growth if seen too early. In fact time of sowing and harvesting generally depends upon the weather condition and position of bands in the respective areas.
Weeding and Training: When the plants are about 1’-2’ high, first weeding is carries out. When the plants are about 3’-4’ high, weeding and training are carried together and this is again repeated when the plants are about 2’-3’ high. IN between these periods weeding is carried out if necessary. This process must be done at the current time with minimum of delay.
Harvesting Time: The value of jute lies in its fiber. The quality and quantity of fiber are dependent upon the maturity of plants. Therefore selection of proper harvesting time is very important. Jute is harvested any time between 120 days to 150 days when the flowers have been shed, early harvesting gives good healthy fibers. The plant from 8 to 12 feet high are cut with stickles at or close the ground level. In flooded land, plants are up rooted. The harvested plants are left in field for 3 days for the leaves to shed.
The Jute Fiber Extraction: The jute plant’s fibers lie beneath the bark and surrounded the woody central part of the stem. To extract the fibers from the stem, the process is carried out in the following stages :
Retting of Jute Fiber: Retting is the process by which the fiber is removed from the stalk. Then the fibers are washed in clear water. Jute is a natural fiber. Jute is a natural fiber. The plant is easy to cultivate and harvest. The fiber is obtained by retting. Retting is process in which the fibers in the bark are loosened and separated from the woody stalk due to the removed of pectins; gums etc.Tish is done by the combined action of water and microorganisms. During retting, disintegration of the tissues starts from the interior of the stem and extends of the outside, liberating the fiber boundless from the wood. The presence of periderm on the stem surface hampers retting and lowers the fiber quality. At lower temperature and running water retting process may take about one month.
Cutting of Jute Fiber: Cutting of jute is usually done by hand with ‘dao’.The cut stemps are tied into bundles of about 9 to 142 inches in diameter.The bundles are then laid on the ground for a period to allow the stem to soften fall off.The bundles are then taken to aonvenient location of water. These are then arranged in layers in ponds.
Stripping of jute fiber: Stripping is the process of removing the fibers from the stalk after the completion of retting. To judge the right time for striping the fibers from the retted plants of the ponds or cannels where the plants have been kept for retting. When is found that fibers can be separated from the stem each stripping. Washing and drying of the fibers should be done as quickly as possible. There are two methods of stripping. They are, Stripping by hand Bunch stripping
Stripping by hand: The bundles of stems are removed from water, allowed to drain off and then each stem stripped separately. Fibers are made up into handful and then washed.
Bunch stripping: The worker stands in water. He takes some stems in his left hand and beats the roads of the steams cloth a wooden mallet. When the roots ends are sufficiently crushed, they are broken off. Loose fibers are then drawn to permit easy separation from the rest of the stems. The stripped of fibers are then washed.
Washing and drying: Extracted fibers are washed in clean water. The dark color of fibers can be removed by dipping them in tamarind water for 15 to 20 min and again washed in clean water. After squeezing excess water the fibers are hang on bamboo railing for sun drying for 2-3 days. The fiber is graded into tops, middles, B, C and X-bottom. Packing into kutcha bales about 250 pounds for use in the home trade. They are transport to market or direct in jute mills.
Bailing and Packing: After grading the jute they packed in bales about 250 pounds for use in the home trade. They are transported to jute market or direct to jute mills.